C Shell Tutorial

Note that you can run any shell simply by typing its name. Welcome to the learn-cpp. It is most effective on multi-processor or multi-core systems where the process flow can be scheduled to run on another processor thus gaining speed through parallel or distributed processing. Beginning the Fun! (Linux Shell). 5) Try to understand Linux Os Try to understand the basics of Linux shell Try to learn the Linux shell programming What I need to learn this Tutorial (LSST v. It is an open source version of the Bourne Shell and was first released in 1989. Making a C++ shell This is for a program in my operating systems class and I'm kind of confused. Whether you are an experienced programmer or not, this website is intended for everyone who wishes to learn the Ruby programming language. The basic command you should use is: ssh [email protected] A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix/Linux shell which could be one of the following: The Bourne Shell; The C Shell; The Korn Shell; The GNU Bourne-Again Shell; A shell is a command-line interpreter and typical operations performed by shell scripts include file manipulation, program execution, and printing text. gitignore file" (and consider unifying them, for the sanity of your team). PuTTY is open source software that is available with source code and is developed and supported by a group of volunteers. This tutorial is primarily for new users of this great technology, and we recommend you to go through all the chapters, to get the most out of it as possible. If the file named filename exists, then the first page (or screen) of the file will be displayed; if the file does not exist, then an empty file and screen are created into which you may enter text. TortoiseSVN is an Apache ™ Subversion (SVN) ® client, implemented as a Windows shell extension. All training sessions are from 9:00AM to 11:00AM at 307 Frey Computing Services Center. How to execute powershell script from c# with commandline arguments Free powershell tutorial site of developers and configuration managers. Any inputs what could be wrong he | The UNIX and Linux Forums. Tip You can set as many breakpoints as you want, and the program should stop execution if it reaches any of them. It means shell accept command from you (via keyboard) and execute them. Below are the options of the command, you will see that the options available let you do almost everything. The first round will consist of four shells. C shell: The C shell was developed by Bill Joy for the Berkeley Software Distribution. The variable $0 refers to the name of the command and $1, $2 and greater will be the parameters passed into the script. Kali Linux Tutorials. However, most Linux distribution comes with an enhanced but completely compatible version of csh called Tcsh. Login to your Debian 9 system using shell access. Prerequisites. Learning to program in C gives a set of low level programming tools that is unmatched by any other programming language. It offers functional improvements over sh for both programming and interactive use. Django Tutorials General Tutorials Django Girls tutorial - the course material used for the DjangoGirls workshops Learn Django - An entry level and project-based course to learn Django Intuitive 20 video tutorial series for Django beginners Short beginner tutorial on building a basic blog site Full Web Framework Python Django Tutorial. Run your code online for free! HTML CSS JS. FOR %%G IN (a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z) DO (md C:\demo\%%G) Using variables within a FOR loop. win-bash - A stand-alone bash for Windows. Click on a link to access the part of the tutorial you are looking for. The interactive shell also features tab completion for functions, constants, class names, variables, static method calls and class constants. This tutorial is designed for beginners only and This tutorial explains the basics of shell programming by showing some examples of shell programs. This article is not a full tutorial, it focuses on C applications and how to use the make install target is another phony target that shows the use of if shell. Disclaimer: I am not a subject expert on writing shells and I am sharing my findings as I learn more about this myself. Using IfcOpenShell and C++ to generate Alignments through the IFC 4×1 schema. File descriptor. IfcOpenShell has an EXPRESS parser and code generator that generates code for the various IFC schemas. 1 day ago · I will be using this folder to explain how I convert the filenames to a new format. Atomic Structure And You Thought You Were Strange Here is an outrageous thought: All the matter around you is made of atoms, and all atoms are made of only three types of subatomic particle, protons, electrons, and neutrons. We will now list down all the operators available in C Shell. GCC and Make Compiling, Linking and Building A Brief History and Introduction to GCC. Hi, To insert a single quote at the end of every line in a file , I do this: sed "s:\\$:':" temp. C shell is the UNIX shell (command execution program, often called a command interpreter) created by Bill Joy at the University of California at Berkeley as an alternative to UNIX's original shell, the Bourne shell. Welcome to the learn-js. Welcome to the learn-cpp. A command language script written for the sh shell will also run in the bash shell. I highly recommend Dino Esposito's great book Visual C++ Windows Shell Programming (ISBN 1861001843) if you want an in-depth look into lots of aspects of the shell, but for folks who don't have the book, or only care about shell extensions, I've written up this tutorial that will astound and amaze you, or failing that, get you well on your way. In line 22, before returning the result, we need to copy our C array into a Python list, because Python can’t read C arrays. the cygwin bash), the win-bash needs no special environment or DLLs. Professor Matloff's Unix/C tutorials. One Windows CShell is a new universal Windows Shell for Windows 10 that scales across PC, Mobile, and Xbox Microsoft is about to take the next step with its "One Windows" vision by introducing an. CNET is the world's leader in tech product reviews, news, prices, videos, forums, how-tos and more. One of the primary functions of a shell is to provide an easy way to execute commands, and passing several files to the command. How about giving us a hand in help others by volunteering for one of our projects? We are actively looking for people to help us out with the tutorial. Most forms of computer memory are intended to store data temporarily. In Windows, the shell is commonly known as the Command Prompt. com, shell not involved, you specify the file to change. Linux is an open-source operating system. It is located on the second floor of Derrick Hall on the San Marcos campus. 120 mounting holes, float bushings, or dual float bushings. line shell for the 90s fish is a smart and user-friendly command line shell for Linux, macOS, and the rest of the family. The start menu uses multiple padding settings to correctly align all graphical elements. The environment file, profile file format. Free Programming Tutorials and Lessons. Writing a C Shell I am playing around with learning to write a shell in C, but I'm running into some problems. I was given the following code and right now it will list whats in a directory but I don't know how to make it work for changing directory's. list of basic c++ programs about if statements, control structure, loops, recursion etc which helps to understand the basic concept in coding. com If this is the first time you use ssh to connect to this remote machine, you will see a message like: The authenticity of host 'sample. ini settings in the interactive shell using a shorthand notation. I need to create a bash shell alias named update as follows: alias update='sudo -- sh -c "/root/bin/chk_disk && dnf update' However, this update alias gets removed after I reboot the Fedora Linux box. With CND™ products, nail and beauty professionals can discover endless possibilities to create stunning nail art designs, color layering options, fashion trends and enhancements. touch -c [filename] The following screenshot shows that since 'newfile12' didn't exist, and we used the -c command line option, the touch command didn't create the file. Zytrax Tech Stuff - Regular Expressions - A Gentle Introduction, Intermediate User Guide and Tutorial. A key part of any programming and scripting language is the ability to run the same piece of code again and again. Example - Iterate over elements of an Array. (b) Select one or two individual program(s) from the population with a probability based on fitness (with reselection allowed) to participate in the genetic operations in (c). (Note: If you are using LATEX in a public lab (e. This manual describes how to install and configure MySQL Connector/C++ 8. Some of those things were added to C-shell (csh) later on. All programs in this page are tested and verified. Two tutorials for C/C++; the first tutorial is intended to help those that want to learn to program in C or C++. x+) Web Browse to read tutorial. This is my third tutorial on the C shell. While many arguments to commands specify file names or user names, some arguments rather specify an optional capability of the command which you. One of the first "new" shells to emerge was the csh or C-Shell. Control Structures: if then else Last time we worked on the basics of putting together a C Shell script. If you are new to Perl, this tutorial is an excellent start. number of carbon groups bonded to the open valence shell carbon. Exercises 2. C shell has many interactive commands. Ubuntu Tutorials are just like learning from pair programming except you can do it on your own. A CGI script can be written in any language that can read STDIN, write to STDOUT, and read environment variables, i. How 1 This talk introduces the audience to the basic use of the UNIX/Linux command line tools and to basic C shell. data and tutorial. Basic tutorial 10: GStreamer tools Goal. Update: If you have multiple Linux environments installed, you can use the wslconfig command to choose the default Linux environment used when you run the bash -c command. 5 and later. A shell script is a plain ASCII text file and can hence be created with any text editor (even vi!). Windows PowerShell Tutorial. Makefiles are a simple way to organize code compilation. The Java Shell tool (JShell) is an interactive tool for learning the Java programming language and prototyping Java code. User Picture (Classic skins) The start menu can also show the user picture. This month, I will discuss filename expansion, and globbing. Script basics 2. Now, it is time to add to this the control structures that actually make scripting useful. It provides the flexibility of choosing the shell experience that best suits the way you work. This tutorial is for the Debian 9 Stretch users to install PHP 7. ) adb logcat -v tag Display the priority/tag only. C / C++ / Assembly Programming Tutorials See also my list of online C/C++/Assembly tutorials. Operators are listed in the order of decreasing precedence. However, csh is undesirable to use in programming, for various reasons. There's two distinct and powerful uses for these aliases:. User Folders - Restore Default Location Issue Hello all Having "lost" several Windows 7 user files, the special ones with Location tabs, I have followed Brink's tutorial to recreate them: Contacts, My Music and My Pictures. Compile Code with Debug Symbols. /configure" then "make" to build it. A reverse shell is a type of shell in which the target machine communicates back to the attacking machine. If you want to run shell commands from within a C program there are several options: Do not use the shell, but bypass the shell and run the commands directly within your program. Get up and running with the latest version of PowerShell in these PowerShell 5 tutorials. Java and the Linux Command Line This document instructs you on how to use the Linux shell with Java. Our Shell Scripting tutorial includes all topics of Scripting executing scripting, loops, scripting parameters, shift through parameters. This tutorial will produce 4″ x 4″ square - the perfect size for a coaster. This page contains examples on basic concepts of C++ programming like: loops, functions, pointers, structures etc. unix shell programming - yashwant kanitkar. Welcome to the learn-php. c into the executable shell. 5, “Running MySQL Shell Reports”. Linux is an open-source operating system. return the lines which don't match), and -l to print the filenames of files with. Developing good scripts 1. Note that some of these commands are different on non-Solaris machines - see SunOS differences. The setuid subroutine, setgid subroutine. Since, it's a very simple program, it is often used to illustrate the syntax of a programming language. If you’re lucky enough to find a command execution vulnerability during a penetration test, pretty soon afterwards you’ll probably want an interactive shell. I have 4 Years of hands on experience on helping student in completing their homework. The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh) is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. The basic tutorial will guide you through creating a page using the Bootstrap CSS framework. Building blocks 1. We can pass command-line arguments to these programs. Free tutorials and reference manuals with examples for Java, Android, C++, C, Python, Linux, Qt. C code for a very simple client and server are provided for you. data directory is a place holder for the Vivado program database. Learn Python, JavaScript, DevOps, Linux and more with eBooks, videos and courses. How to use ADB shell commands on Windows. It has been widely distributed, beginning with the 2BSD release of the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) that Joy began distributing in 1978. You can also browse disk volumes and start EFI applications. Again, at least I did. Mössenböck University of Linz, Austria [email protected] It is a list of commands which you would normally have issued yourself on the commandline (quite similar in concept to command files under VMS or batch files under MSDOS). It demonstrates the basics of how a shell works. Googling "C Shell Tutorial" can lead you to more detailed. There is no need to download anything - just click on the chapter you wish to begin from, and follow the instructions. Contribute to eyelash/tutorials development by creating an account on GitHub. Users will typically run ". The new native Extend your GitHub workflow beyond your browser with GitHub Desktop, completely redesigned with Electron. Windows PowerShell is an object-oriented automation engine and scripting language with an interactive command-line shell designed to help IT professionals configure systems and automate administrative tasks. [donotprint. The C shell is a Unix shell that was created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s. Remember that the Linux Tutorial helps you free of charge. It runs through a series of checks to determine the operating system type and version. gitignore file" (and consider unifying them, for the sanity of your team). Getting Started with Amazon EC2 Linux Instances Let's get started with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) by launching, connecting to, and using a Linux instance. Googling “C Shell Tutorial” can lead you to more detailed. It's simple to learn and great for many different types of crochet projects. One Windows CShell is a new universal Windows Shell for Windows 10 that scales across PC, Mobile, and Xbox Microsoft is about to take the next step with its "One Windows" vision by introducing an. The description rows need to be fully opaque (A=255). The Born Again shell is used by most of the Unix/Linux operating systems as there default shell. Shellsort, also known as Shell sort or Shell's method, is an in-place comparison sort. Depending on your computer, you may invoke the C++ compiler by a command like c++, CC, cxx, g++ (the Gnu compiler), icc (the Intel compiler), pcCC (the Portland Group compiler), or xlc++ (the IBM compiler). I was given the following code and right now it will list whats in a directory but I don't know how to make it work for changing directory's. In insertion sort, we move elements only one position ahead. This application will produce an HTML document that contains information about your system. NET, Java, and CSS. If there is a process or pattern that you would like to see included here, please open a Jira Case. Classic Shell version 4. Bash Variable. Learn more. On Windows 8, from the desktop, right click the Start menu icon, click Run, and then type powershell and press Enter. The shell sort compares elements that are a certain distance away (d positions away) from each other and it compares these elements repeatedly (bubble sort only compares adjacent. Other shells include the Korn Shell (ksh), the C Shell (csh), and variations such as tcsh. The VBA Shell function runs a command in the operating system shell. If you get stuck, press C-g to cancel pending commands, and exit Emacs by pressing C-x C-c. You can execute shell commands in the same manner as you would if you were physically operating the remote computer. Vim command line tutorial. This application will produce an HTML document that contains information about your system. (gdb) break file1. net will teach you the fundamentals of C# programming. By this time, I assume that you have read the first part of the series and know how to create a simple script and execute it. His Java tutorial. An interactive in-browser tutorial to learn. C and C++ Projects. Here is one way to find out: $ whereis bash. PS C:\Program Files\Windows PowerShell\v1. Shell Structures. Kali Linux in the DigitalOcean Cloud. NetBeans C/C++ support lets you create C and C++ Application and Library projects with generated makefiles, as well as C and C++ projects with existing sources. 1 Listing files and directories ls (list) When you first login, your current working directory is your home directory. DERR 231 - This open lab facility contains the Computer Science Lab and Tutoring Lab. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. It's easy to view yourself as "not a real programmer. Scott Shell 2/24 last modified 6/17/2014 Overview NumPy and SciPy are open-source add-on modules to Python that provide common. Investing is one of the key strategies to building long-term wealth and financial security. This set of stitches is the first "shell" of the granny square. Whether you are an experienced programmer or not, this website is intended for everyone who wishes to learn the Go programming language. Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial (LSST) v2. This process allows to identify errors as early as possible. If you wish to continue learning Unix, here is a list of good Unix and Linux books, ranging from beginners to advanced. Good luck!. Disclaimer: I am not a subject expert on writing shells and I am sharing my findings as I learn more about this myself. Here is one way to find out: $ whereis bash. Windows PowerShell Tutorial. Programming the WshShell Object. Want to learn a different language? Over the course of 24 episodes, our friend Bob Tabor from www. Here is the tlink shell line of the example, written to use an inline response file:. If you've ever been to the movies, admired a piece of sculpture, marveled at detailed architectural ornamentation or used a telephone; then you've encountered the handiwork of people who use Smooth-On rubbers, plastics, foams and other products to turn their ideas into 3-dimensional reality. 5) Linux OS ( I have used Red Hat Linux distribution Version 6. Face and eye makeup, lipstick, makeup tools and pro tips. First of all, I'm also very new to C in general (I'm a Java guy), so any mistakes you see are probably from my lack of knowledge. Cengage leads affordable learning: digital learning platforms, college textbooks, ebooks, and an unlimited subscription to over 22,000 digital products for one price. Often, you'll work with data in Comma Separated Value (CSV) files and run into problems at the very start of your workflow. There's two distinct and powerful uses for these aliases:. Whether you are an experienced programmer or not, this website is intended for everyone who wishes to learn the Go programming language. a collection of minimal example programs. adb logcat -v process Display PID only. Now, it is time to add to this the control structures that actually make scripting useful. Java Project Tutorial - Make Login and Register Form Step by Step Using NetBeans And MySQL Database - Duration: 3:43:32. Bash is the Bourne Again SHell. We only assume some general knowledge about how to use computers. Useful one liners and sed notes. However, before you move on, make sure that you are comfortable with topics discussed here. File descriptor 1 is the standard output and is typically the virtual terminal that is the window where the shell is running. A complete reference for writing makefiles from simple to advanced features. Disclaimer: I am not a subject expert on writing shells and I am sharing my findings as I learn more about this myself. By this time, I assume that you have read the first part of the series and know how to create a simple script and execute it. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. This enables virtualizing Android operating systems. The start menu uses multiple padding settings to correctly align all graphical elements. Much of Unix kernel is written in C. You can buy this tutorial to keep, as a Paperback or eBook from Amazon, or Buy this tutorial as a PDF ($5) 4. C an you give me a simple loop example in csh shell in Linux or Unix like operating systems? The C shell (csh) or the improved version, tcsh is a Unix shell that was originally created by Bill Joy at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s. efi on the root of my usb. C Tutorial Table of Contents. It might seem improbable, but still, I would rather not bet my startup's existence on a single faulty bash line. Using C++ 11, Peggy covers the basics such as how to compile and run C++ programs, and how to create variables. edu 11th August 2003 This is a very brief guide to how to use cshell to speed up your use of Unix commands. The method starts by sorting pairs of elements far apart from each other, then progressively reducing the gap between elements to be compared. It is most effective on multi-processor or multi-core systems where the process flow can be scheduled to run on another processor thus gaining speed through parallel or distributed processing. SSH stands for Secure Shell. Passing parameters to a script []. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Developing good scripts 1. Shell on remote OS. Linux is an open-source operating system. Chapter 8: Examples of Shell Scripts Logic Development: Shell script to print given numbers sum of all digit Shell script to print contains of file from given line number to next given number of lines Shell script to say Good morning/Afternoon/Evening as you log in to system Shell script to find whether entered year is Leap or not. Tag: Xena RAT tutorial. # execute the workflow with target D1. I am a new Linux user and student who used to write C or C++ programs on MS-Windows. All training sessions are from 9:00AM to 11:00AM at 307 Frey Computing Services Center. Don't forget the -UseBasicParsing option to prevent creating a DOM from the results, and to avoid errors on systems without Internet Explorer installed (server core, and Windows 10 systems only running Edge browsers). PuTTY is an SSH and telnet client, developed originally by Simon Tatham for the Windows platform. Meet PowerShell Tutorial. Common shell programs 1. For instructions, see Section 6. Kali Linux in the DigitalOcean Cloud. Salt Bootstrap¶ The Salt Bootstrap Script allows a user to install the Salt Minion or Master on a variety of system distributions and versions. Particle Commands. csh is an acronym for C SHell. C++ Tic Tac Toe Game Project is developed in C++ for class XI CBSE board students. Executing commands 1. Join in on the discussion and engage with the PowerShell community on Twitter. Getting started with Shell Programming. Packt is the online library and learning platform for professional developers. Also see the YoLinux Tutorial on Recovery and Boot disks. I decided to write this because I'll learn a lot and it might be useful to other people. Among other things, cmake will generate makefiles for you. Now it is time to dive deeper into the most popular and common usage of Netcat: Setting up bind shells and reverse shells. Explore and add your first skill to get started. The method starts by sorting pairs of elements far apart from each other, then progressively reducing the gap between elements to be compared. You will have to execute command on gdb shell. An interactive in-browser tutorial to learn. Now the original tutorial is available as a free PDF download. C++ runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. In C#, the most rapid and convenient way to create your user interface is to do so visually, using the Windows Forms Designer and Toolbox. The interactive shell also features tab completion for functions, constants, class names, variables, static method calls and class constants. You can find it in every modern Windows OS starting with Windows 2008R2. According to the sqlmap manual. org free interactive PHP tutorial. This tutorial will explain you all about Unix Functions. Welcome to the learnshell. Creating and running a script 2. Now, it is time to add to this the control structures that actually make scripting useful. 0, which provides C++ and plain C interfaces for communicating with MySQL servers, and how to use Connector/C++ to develop database applications. Can anyone point in the direction of where I can find a tutorial or manual on how to write shell scripts using C++. C:\> This is where you type commands. The Bash (Born Again) is a Unix shell and command line language written by the Brian Fox. The above metacharacter can be used with various commands to match the string like preg_match, preg_match_all in PHP or used with a "~=" to compare in Perl. Also lots of Photoshop resources like textures, brushes and patterns. Googling “C Shell Tutorial” can lead you to more detailed. We will now list down all the operators available in C Shell. That stuff that goes on liquid, then immediately hardens to make a hard chocolate shell. Shell Scripting tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Shell Scripting. The description rows need to be fully opaque (A=255). (b) Select one or two individual program(s) from the population with a probability based on fitness (with reselection allowed) to participate in the genetic operations in (c). This tutorial is from CompleteCsharpTutorial. C Programming language tutorial, Sample C programs, C++ Programs, Java Program, Interview Questions, C graphics programming, Data Structures, Binary Tree, Linked List, Stack, Queue, Header files, Design Patterns in Java, Triangle and Star pyramid pattern, Palindrome anagram Fibonacci programs, C puzzles. The crochet shell stitch is an advanced beginner crochet stitch that adds decorative appeal to projects. Again, at least I did. The first round will consist of four shells. C++ runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. 5) Linux OS ( I have used Red Hat Linux distribution Version 6. This tutorial does not cover those shells. Standards committees worked over the Bourne shell and added many features of the Korn shell (ksh88) and C shell to define a standard set of features which all compliant shells must have. Now the original tutorial is available as a free PDF download. RS232 (single-ended) was introduced in 1962, and despite rumors for its early demise, has remained widely used through the industry. This text only deals with dynamic web page creation with PHP, though PHP is not only capable of creating web pages. Learn Linux / Unix shell scripting by example along with the theory. PHP-enabled web pages are treated just like. Windows PowerShell Tutorial. Objective-C is the primary programming language you use when writing software for OS X and iOS. 120 mounting holes, float bushings, or dual float bushings. public/service-worker. However, csh is undesirable to use in programming, for various reasons. Variables - Part I Just about every programming language in existence has the concept of variables - a symbolic name for a chunk of memory to which we can assign values, read and manipulate its contents. This is Java 2D games tutorial. The advanced tutorials will guide you through all there is to know regarding HTML & CSS. >>> Python Software Foundation. The examples in this tutorial will use sockets in the Internet domain using the TCP protocol. This Hello World tutorial takes a simple program and builds upon it to illustrate the various elements of the Python programming language. How to use ADB shell commands on Windows. One of the projects that I am exploring at RC, is writing a UNIX shell. Now George Conway calls his wife Kellyanne's boss a RAPIST in latest tweet putting D. (gdb) break file1. The second and more customizable way, will be to create and. I would like to execute the Linux command "pwd" through a C language function like execv(). org free interactive C++ tutorial. Bourne Again shells. For example:. IfcOpenShell has an EXPRESS parser and code generator that generates code for the various IFC schemas. It's easy to view yourself as "not a real programmer. An instance is a virtual server in the AWS cloud. This is Java 2D games tutorial. These jobs can reside. SSH (Secure Shell) is a popular and widely used tool for remote login and file transfers over insecure networks, that uses encryption to secure the connection between a client and a server. c: The command-line interface program itself. C++ runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX. x+) Web Browse to read tutorial. ) Create a new folder, then copy into it the following example files from the LATEX training page. C Programming language tutorial, Sample C programs, C++ Programs, Java Program, Interview Questions, C graphics programming, Data Structures, Binary Tree, Linked List, Stack, Queue, Header files, Design Patterns in Java, Triangle and Star pyramid pattern, Palindrome anagram Fibonacci programs, C puzzles. His "Extremely Quick and Simple Introduction to the Vi Text editor," and his introductions to the elvis and vim extensions to vi. virtually any programming language, including C, Perl, or even shell scripting. By this time, I assume that you have read the first part of the series and know how to create a simple script and execute it. org in the #helpdesk channel. In this method, we will be making use of the Ubuntu mv command in a for loop in order to rename all files/folders in a given directory so that all spaces in their names are replaced with underscore characters. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: